Journal of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences

Journal of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences

(ISSN: 2659 – 0743)

Volume 5, No. 1,  2023
Pages 24-33

DOI: 10.36108/jvbs/3202.50.0140

Bovine Sero- surveillance of Foot- and – Mouth Disease in Four States in Nigeria
Fomenky B1, Wungak Y.S. 2, Ehizibolo D.O.2, Sada A.2, Oyekan O.A.2, Inuwa B.2, Anyika K.C.2, Nfon C.1 and Ularamu G.H.2.
1National Centre for Foreign Animal Disease, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, 1015 Arlington Street, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3E 3M4 Canada
2National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom, PMB01, Plateau state, Nigeria


Animals with cloven hooves are susceptible to highly contagious foot and mouth disease (FMD). FMD epidemics have affected several underdeveloped countries, including Nigeria. The migration of pastoralist animals has been linked to FMD transmission in Nigeria, and surveillance is essential for assessing the threat and impact of FMD, as well as the emergence of PCP-FMD. Here, we report the sero-surveillance of FMD in cattle in four states in Nigeria in 2019. Sera collected from four states (Anambra, Enugu, Imo, and Katsina) were tested for antibodies against FMD non-structural protein (NSP), with an overall prevalence of 45%. Significantly higher seroprevalence was recorded in Imo (63%), followed by Kastina (56%), Anambra (29%), and Enugu (6%). An overall serotype-specific prevalence of 81%, 35 %, 50 %, and 35% was recorded for serotypes O, A, 50% for SAT 2, and SAT 1, respectively. Furthermore, circulating antibodies against four serotypes of FMDV were found in 16% of sera samples, 20% had antibodies against three circulating serotypes, 33% had antibodies against two serotypes, and 25% showed exposure to only one serotype, indicating exposure to multiple FMD serotypes. These findings demonstrate the presence of FMDV antibodies in cattle across all surveyed states, which may be related to the presence of multiple FMDV serotypes (O, A, SAT1and SAT2) and concurrent co-infection in these states. Therefore, there is a need for the continuous surveillance of FMD in Nigeria. This will help ascertain the burden of the disease and enable the implementation of necessary control measures to stop its potential transmission and further spread. This sero-surveillance data expands our understanding of the FMD situation in Nigeria and is crucial for determining the country’s FMD risk in order to advance the PCP-FMD.
Keywords: 3ABC ELISA, Antibodies, Foot and Mouth Disease, Nigeria, Sero-surveillance, Solid Phase ELISA, States

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